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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like a racing heart. It is a normal emotion to stressful events and is helpful, but some people have a heightened sense of anxiety which has a profound negative impact on their functioning. 

People with anxiety disorders usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns or strong feelings of panic sensations. They may avoid certain situations out of worry or to avoid feeling the uncomfortable feeling. They may also have physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness or a rapid heartbeat.


Depression is a normal emotion characterised as  feeling sad  sad, moody or low.  People suffering from Depression tend to  experience these feelings intensely for long periods of time (weeks, months or even years)  and sometimes without any apparent reason. Problematic depression tends to negatively effect  a person's functioning.


ITrauma is an emotional response to a very stressful event like an accident, rape or natural disaster. Immediately after the event, shock and denial are typical. Longer term reactions include unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships and even physical symptoms like headaches or nausea. While these feelings are normal, some people have more permanent symptoms and have difficulty moving on with their lives.


Addiction is a chronic disorder with biological, psychological, social and environmental factors influencing its development and maintenance. About half the risk for addiction is genetic. Genes affect the degree of reward that individuals experience when initially using a substance (e.g., drugs) or engaging in certain behaviors (e.g., gambling), as well as the way the body processes alcohol or other drugs. Heightened desire to re-experience use of the substance or behavior, potentially influenced by psychological (e.g., stress, history of trauma), social (e.g., family or friends' use of a substance), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of a substance, low cost) can lead to regular use/exposure, with chronic use/exposure leading to brain changes.


Emotion regulation is a multifaceted construct involving  the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions:; the ability to engage in goal‐directed positive behaviours and inhibit impulsive behaviours when experiencing negative emotions;;  the flexible use of situationally appropriate strategies to modulate the intensity and/or duration of emotional responses rather than to eliminate emotions entirely; and a willingness to experience negative emotions as part of pursuing meaningful activities in life


Working with couples or families to improve communication, strengthen bonds, increase a sense of happiness, and  helping  to resolve  conflict  or repeating problematic dynamics.

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